"What do you think for what amount one person is ready to kill another today?»Excerpt from the book of the Expert Criminalist
There are people like, there are twins, one-time twins are born. And yet there are differences between them. Let tiny, let the level of one segment in the DNA chain, in the form of a barely noticeable mole on the back or distance between the front teeth, – but there is. Criminalistics other than ballistics, drug analysis and poisons, photographs and other technical belongings are engaged in two inevitable problems:
- Binding a person to a certain subject, place and, if you’re lucky, time.
- Identification of personality, i.e. comparing one person with another or many. In a professional language, it sounds like this: One to One or One to Many.
So what is unique in every single person? Fingerprints, you will say, and DNA. Right, this is what first comes to mind. Some of you, I am sure they will point to the rainbow shell of the eye and retina. And they will also be right. And you know that the structure of the teeth, ear and lips of man is also unique?
Nothing worth a little experiment. Tuning lips lipstick and blot them with white paper napkin. Ask a colleague to do the same. Make sure the difference is. Just do not go out with such lips a couple on the native city street. You may not understand. On women, this Council naturally does not apply.
Everything is more complicated with the ear. It is not necessary to paint it, just take a picture of the ears of several friends and compare photos.
In case you have to identify a living person, Identification software is applied:
- fingerprints and palms;
- iris and retina eye;
- the structure of the face;
- veins in the area of hands;
- Hand writing;
- teeth structure;
But in other circumstances, it is necessary to identify the corpse. When we are dealing with the dead body, we explore:
- fingerprints and palms if they are;
- DNA, sources of which serve blood, saliva, sperm, hair with roots, leather, bone system;
- teeth structure, if somehow the oral cavity is saved.
It should be noted that the fingerprints and palms of the corpse are not always saved in a state suitable for comparison procedure. The corpse can burn, lie for a long time in water, in a closed car, just decomposed. But DNA can withstand checks and time, and fire, and water, and explosion. As for the structure of the teeth, this is a very difficult procedure, since for comparison you need to have panoramic pictures of a person made during life.
In the Telegram channel "Edu Technophobia" only the best texts about technologies, relationships, sports, cinema and many other things. Subscribe!
In our Pinterest only the best texts about relationships, sports, cinema, health and many other things. Subscribe!
Identification of living – this is a question confused from a theoretical point of view, although the process itself is more or less worked out. The fact is that professionals are still arguing about which of the methods of identification of immaculate, and which there are errors and, therefore, can lead to incorrect results.
It is believed that dactyloscopy is infallible. We will also accept this postulate, although it is very shaky. To the question "why?"I will answer later. Unusually reliable DNA analysis, as he, as any self-respecting scientific method, is based on statistical data.
The category of absolute can be attributed to the Identification on the iris and retina, the geometry of the veins, the structure of the ear and the shape of the lips.
Methods are very difficult technically, therefore it is not always applied. However, the uniqueness of the iris and retina, the geometry of the veins are increasingly used in biometric access systems. But the ear and lips are "not lucky", they are almost forgotten. Identification of people on the gait – the area is quite young, and it is difficult to say how she will come in later.
Today, individual disciplines – biometrics based on measuring and analyzing the physiological, anatomical or behavioral characteristics of a person also deals with identification issues. She was born at the junction of physiology, physics and computer technology and extremely quickly turned into a supervised area of science and industry with billionth annual turns. Firms developing and selling biometric systems argue that their products are ideal. And indeed, it becomes more accurate every year and easier to use at the expense of advanced mathematical support, smart, self-learning computer programs and more sensitive sensors.
To estimate the accuracy of biometric recognition systems there are several criteria, the main of which are:
- erroneously correct identification (FALSE POSITIVE Identification);
- Invalid incorrect identification (False Negative Identification).
In the first case, the system was not recognized by the person, and in the second did not recognize the desired. Imagine the situation when biometric access control in the team bunker does not recognize the headquarters chief? What is there of the General Staff, the man can not get home, for instead of the usual doorway, it was ruined on an expensive biometric system. The smaller the false Positive and False Negative, the most reliable system.
The more serious (and, accordingly, more expensive) biometric system, the greater the verification elements it includes. Good models often use dactyloskopia, iris analysis and in addition to the voice or structure of the face. American marines in Afghanistan and Iraq have long been equipped with the device, seemingly resembling a regular camera. In memory of the camera, a database of rainbow shells of persons was introduced, in the past arrested on suspicion of terrorism. When meeting with a suspect, soldiers demands to raise his hands and look into the chamber’s eye. Comparison is carried out instantly. Israeli police own a similar miniature system based on comparing fingerprint. The memory of the device stores tens of thousands of "sewn" prints, and with a negative result of the search sends a request to the main national database, the answer to which comes immediately.
We did not accidentally leave the identification based on voice recognition and handraffizes. Both have a long history and apply very widely.
You, of course, read "in the first round" Solzhenitsyn? In the Stalin "Sharashka", scholar scientists are developing a voice recognition system. Today it is a big and actively developing area that can be written a separate book. Primitive graphs from Solzhenitsyn’s novel remained in the deep past. Voice recognition has become only part of interdisciplinary science on speech recognition, including many areas of physiology, psychology, linguistics, computer science and signal processing. Each of us can touch the most simple crash of speech recognition problems, including the Speech to Write function on its smartphone.
A very small number of countries has in their forensic services to recognize votes. Reasons for that two. Identification votes is still not quite accurate due to the fact that the voice of a person strongly depends on its age, emotional state, health, hormonal background and a number of other factors. The second reason: Most services prefer to invest money and funds in high-precision and proven areas – DNA analysis and Dactyloskopia.
Comparison of handwriting is a delicate matter; to learn this specialty, takes several years. Identification is carried out, as a rule, according to the "One sample against the other" method (One to One). Well, for example, near the body hanging in the loop found a suicide note: "In my death I ask no one to blame". The man himself wrote or someone did it for him? The crime lab deliver the note and handwriting samples of the victim from his home. Notebooks, shopping lists, notes. Specialist verifies the spelling corresponding letters, tilt, pressure, typical zavitochki, distances.
Of course, there is a likelihood of errors, because the handwriting depends on many parameters: the mental state of the person, the surface on which it writes, substrates, lighting, type of pencil or handle, and from the purpose of the recording. For myself wrote a memo? Children’s instruction? A friend of claims presented?
Unstarting people often confise to handwritten with graphology. The first is science, and the second is a profanation, for claims to recognize the character of a person.
Here is the pressure – it means aggressive, and here the density of the letters is big – it means that you, and farther in the same vein. The saddest thing is that the graphologists managed to stand on their feet and stand on them firmly. They have their own associations, presidents, congresses, magazines and, most importantly, the clientele. Millions of people allow themselves to fool and pay for it. In our decade, we have a scientific seminar, whose coordinator I consisted in different periods of service. In 1997, I invited two famous graphologies on it. Our experts from the laboratory of checking documents are almost confused right on stage.
On cunning lawyers and unfair experts
What do you think for what amount one person is ready to kill another today? I have no opinion on this issue, but there are facts, and you will find them if you read this chapter to the end.
Two very nonsense men had a small common business in Tel Aviv. At some point between them, disagreements arose, and Ronen Mor killed Avi Kogan to the head of the revolver. The body he plunged into the Fiat Fiorino owned by Fiat Fiorino and dismissed the wasteland near the new buildings in the north of the city.
Nothing original. An even simpler, Ronen decided to get rid of the car: I paid the evacoitor and asked to move the Fiat to the parking lot of the nearby shopping center.
A day after the murder of workers, exporting the remnants of reinforcement, stumbled upon the corpse. Mor, as the only companion on business, was interrogated and detained, because his behavior during the primary conversation did not inspire confidence in investigators. Found the car quickly and already at the first surface inspection noted on both rear doors traces of blood hands. Laboratory examination found that blood belongs to the killed, and the traces – the killer. "Well, so interesting?" – you ask. Take patience, we just start a story.
Ronen Mor, arrested on charges of murder, met with his lawyer, and together they composed a wonderful scenario:
- Ronen Mor Boulin, he has an alzheimer’s disease and failures in memory.
- He is an elderly man, he sees bad, especially at night.
- Avi Kogan he naturally did not kill.
- His car was asked for a short two unfamiliar, very serious on the sight of men, and he agreed from fear.
- Those returned the car in the office late in the evening when it was already dark on the yard.
- Just at this time, the sea left the toilet, where he washed his hands, and maybe touched by the wet palms of the car door.
- As the MIR sees poorly in the dark, he did not notice the dried blood stains on a red car.
- Touching on such a stain, he left its prints in the blood in a clean area.
It was clear to everyone that of the eight points of this exciting history of at least five latter – nothing but a brazen nonsense. But the lawyer went even further: he ordered a private criminologist who was the former employee of our department, an examination that would argue that if touched with a wet hand of a dry blood stain, you can leave on the clean surface of the car’s fingerprint in the blood. And the expert has given such a conclusion! True, he lost conscience only partially, as he wrote a conclusion in length only two lines:
"It is impossible to exclude the possibility of transferring the imprint from a dry spot of blood to a clean surface when touched by a wet hand spot".
Experiment expert did not attend himself.
With this examination, two prosecutor came to the laboratory: "What will we do? It is clear that nonsense, but judges will demand the official opinion of the police, so write a response ".
To give an expert opinion, it was necessary to carry out an experiment, and for this it took:
- 10 metal samples from which the FIAT FIORINO 1997 body is made, but not red, and white color to achieve better contrast spots on the surface. Police, tapping millions, hardly found money to pay the work of the garage, who agreed to cooperate. The garage would have given the samples to help the police, but only by law it is impossible to take anything from anyone without paying and not receiving a receipt.
- Six volunteers, consonant participate in the experiment why exactly 10 metal samples and six volunteers? So as a result of the experiment, somehow answered the requirements of statistics. .
- 50 milliliters of the blood of each of the six participants (for reasons of hygiene people should contact only with their own blood).
The task that was in front of us was simple only at first glance. First of all, it was necessary to determine what "wet hands" is, because it is not a scientific concept. So, the so-called step-by-step experiment was required, during which it was necessary to intuitively change the humidity of the hands from completely dry to absolutely wet. And they did: they smeared their blood on white metal surfaces, drawn on the squares; Samples were dried at a certain temperature fixed time; The employee alternately concerned the dry spot of blood and pure metal plot.
And so as long as in a clean cell did not manage to see at least something similar to the fingerprint in the blood. If this effect managed to achieve, then the initial spot, and the imprint. Of the many hundreds of experiments, the positive effect managed to register only in several cases when the employee’s hand was absolutely wet, and contact with the spot – especially dense and long. Increased photographs of blood stains, we saw an interesting feature.
Whenever you managed to leave the imprint, traces of the papillary pattern of the pressed finger were visible on the initial spot of the blood. On the stains of dried blood on the Fiat doors, this effect was noticed was not!
Ronen Mor was condemned to the district court for simply murder and received a life sentence. At the court of his lawyer asked me for two days at four o’clock on the actions that I described you in hundreds of lines. A year after the end of the court, the lawyer died from cancer, and the Mor approximately – in prison from heart attack.
Yes, I almost forgot: the dispute between partners came out of four thousand dollars.
Boris Geller is one of the leading foremost experts of Israel, a specialist in the field of dactyloscopy and research sites of the crime. He is generously sharing his knowledge, recalls cases of his own practice, talks about the history of the formation of forensic and its state in many countries of the world, including Russia.
The Book of Heller "Science of Disclosure of Crimes" will be interested in the widest range of readers – from lovers of plenty of detectives to those who are seriously interested in issues of investigation of crimes and law enforcement.