What does the cost of wine depends on? Explains professional sommelier
Today, in the diverse wine world, the consumer is difficult to make a choice, since in addition to the many countries, regions, manufacturers and styles there is a pricing factor, which for many remains unlohabited. You can remember how our businessmen sought to get the vineyard in Tuscany in the era of oil boom in Tuscany and the chateau in Medoche, and then, realizing what investment and how long they pay off, went down to the ground.
Sprinkle a vineyard – dear procedure. Just the purchase of land in a particular region, especially in prestigious, comes to a penny. First you need to analyze soil, exposure, landscape, weather conditions and understand which grape variety comes to this area. To do this, the agronomists and ethologists and consultants come to the rescue. Their fee can reach up to millions of euros per year (though, here we are talking about star winemakers of Michel Rollan, Carlo Ferrini).
Next, buy vines in the nursery, planted and form a vineyard … and are waiting for three to four years!
The first harvest new vines will not give immediately, so start from zero expensive, these are long investments. Easier to buy already planted land.
The vineyard requires care for almost all the time, so no one can do without constant agronomas and his assistants. It is necessary to make trimming vines, form a plant, fight freezing, drought, heavy rains, hail, diseases and pests.
How does wine-makeup come in case of a small or lost harvest? It raises prices for what remains, or its next harvest. A vivid example – Burgundy, which over the past seven years only once achieved the right balance of quality and quantity. Hence the rise in price by 30-40%, depending on the appeal.
Grapes can also be bought if not or lacking your. Its price, respectively, also affects the cost of wine. Depending on the region, it varies greatly. In large, calculated on the mass market of the regions, the price per kilogram starts from 10 cents, in the most expensive region, champagne, in the most prestigious Village of the Grand Cru, from 5 to 9 euros.
The reputation of the wine-made region, its prestige and demand for vineyards.
Buy 1 hectare of the vineyard in Barolo or Burgundy costs from 1 million euros, but the problem is that no one will sell.
Therefore, all the last transactions here were so high for the price that it becomes clear: they offered such an amount from which it is impossible to refuse. But in the south of France or Italy, to acquire vineyards is not difficult and even relative to the cheap, but will the demand for such wine?
2. Work force
This is one of the most "expensive" factors in pricing, therefore the cost of the employee, let’s say, in France can take a considerable share of the cost of the bottle. Owners of farms, of course, use the services of seasonal workers, machinery and leased tractors and equipment, and the quality can also be reduced.
There are cases when the mechanization of harvest is prohibited by law or bottling of wine is allowed to do only within this wine-making region. However, in such regions like Moselle (Germany), Northern Ron (France) or Douro Valley (where Portugal is done in Portugal), no mechanization and speech: the slopes are so cool that you have to build terraces and sometimes use the swan.
To produce wine, a sorting table for grapes is needed, crusher-comb separator (for red grapes), press (most often for white), fermentation chains (oak, from cement or stainless steel), shutter speed barrels (if necessary), recreational line. Much of this can also be b / y or rent, but also there is a chance to lose as.
If we talk about the cost of exchanging capacities, then, for example, a standard barrel for 225 liters from the leading coordinates of France Seguin-Moreau or Vicard will cost 800 to 1,2 euros. And here it is necessary to understand that such a barrel of a premium manufacturer is used not more than 4-5 years. Park barrels must be constantly updated, and old – sell.
Bottle packaging (size, volume, format, weight) is important because the heavy massive capacity is more expensive, but also looks premium, and for the mass segment they take the easiest and standard calibers.
The capping may also affect the cost: a natural portuguese solid tube from oak bark costs from 1 to 3.5 euros, an extruded plug – 0.1 euro. Synthetic, stoppers, glass or screws, also significantly reduced wine. Do not forget about labels and boxes.
5. Transportation and storage
We have cheaper than land. Therefore, despite the remoteness, Chile wines, South Africa and Australia are not so much in price after transportation on the ship, and then, as soon as they "sit" in a truck, begin to go.
Ideally, you need to use the machine with refrigeration equipment so that the wine does not overheat or not frozen. Those who are trying to save on a cheap wagon, take the risk to spoil wine before arriving at the warehouse.
In the premium segment of wine (from 20 euros), transportation costs can be up to 15% of its final cost.
6. Taxes, excise taxes and duties
As in many countries of the world, in Russia, imported wine is subject to excise taxes ($ 18 per liter of quiet wine with a protected name of the place of origin), duty (12.5% of the customs value) and VAT (18%).
When the wine comes to the importer, it is necessary to understand what means to sell it. Advertising and promotion in different sales channels are carried out in different ways. For premium wines, this tasting, exhibitions and master classes for professional audience and connoisseurs, for retail – work with a shelf, promotion and other. Already at this stage, the cost of wine, for example, from Italy from 10 euros to 25 grows.
eight. Distributors, Retailers and Restaurants
It is also necessary to remember the warehouse costs where the wine does not get better if there is no climate control in the room. Yes, and frozen assets do not need anyone.
Of course, there is a small pool of wines, the cost of which to explain the costs of production or logistics cannot be. These wines include classic samples of Bordeaux, Burgundy, Champagne, legendary Tuscan and cult california wines. The demand for famous Chateau and Cut so high that the limits of the markup almost no.
The fact is that many wines do come from a unique vineyard that cannot be expanded, and the volume is increasing. But still, these wines are spoiled and drink – often too early when they did not reveal their great potential. In this case, the logic of the market is working: the wine costs as much as the customer is ready to pay for it.