What has changed in the world of cloning from the time of lamb

Cloning cloning is the creation of genetically identical copies of living organisms or their fragments. You can clone different biological material: individual cells, fabrics, organs and whole organisms.

What are the types of cloning?

Molecular cloning

With this method, scientists allocate gene cloning genes of interest to generate, insert them into plasmid – the DNA molecule of bacteria, and then create a population of such bacteria. Depending on the purpose of the experiment, you can dwell on this or insert the obtained plasmids into plants and animal cells.

This is how genetically modified organisms are removed: plants that are resistant to pests, animal immunity to diseases. Also using technology are studying diseases and develop drugs.

Therapeutic cloning

Scientists grow a clone embryo in a test tube, but do not give it to develop in a full-fledged organism. For this, an animal or person take a somatic cell – any cell of the body, not taking part in the sexual reproduction, and get the kernel from it. Also take an egg cell another of the same type and remove the kernel.

Then the core is inserted into a nuclear-free egg and launch the division process. When the cell turns into a blastocyte – a bubble with embryonic stem cells inside, development stop.

Stem cells (predecessor cells), which have not yet decided which cells to turn can become anything. These are used by Tissue Engineering, Stem Cells, Cloning, and Parthenogenesis: New Paradigms for therapy for experiments, for example, scientists explore mutations in genes or try to grow organs and fabrics that can be implanted to replace damaged.

Reproductive cloning

This view allows Cloning to create a genetically identical copy of an animal. The mechanism is the same as in therapeutic cloning, only the development of the embryo is not interrupted at the blastocyte stage. Instead, it is attached to the uterus of the same species, where the embryo is developing into a full-fledged organism.

What animals have already cloned?

Dolly – the most famous clone, but not the first. The history of cloning began for the whole century before the birth of sheep.

In 1885, Hans Drish divided the two-cell EMBRIN of the sea hedgehog and received two identical twins. Then in 1902, Hans Shedhed with a hairs shaved the embryo Salamandra and also received two clones.

Experiments with the transfer of the kernel in the egg began 50 years later. At first it turned out to insert the core of the embryo cells into an empty egg frog, a little later – to grow tasty from the intestine of the frog.

Then came the cereals of mammals. In 1984, Stylish Villaladsen inserted the History of Cloning the core of the embryo sheep in a nuclear-free egg. Surrogate sheep mother endured three lamb clones. In the same way – from embryos cells – successfully cloned chickens, sheep and cows.

And finally, in 1996, researchers from the Roslinsky Institute in Scotland for the first time created a clone from the cage of udder six-year-old sheep. After 276 attempts, the experiment was a success, and lamb came to the light.

Scarecrow Lamb Dolly at the Royal Museum of Scotland / Wikipedia

After dolly on this technology, a lot of animals were cloned: a cow, a cat, a deer, a dog, a horse, a mule, ox, a pig, rabbit, rats and mice, goat, wolf.

Scientists tried to clone and monkeys, but it turned out not so simple. Only 10 years after dollars in the test tube, stem cells of the macaque resumes were raised, and the living clones managed to create even the same. In 2018, the experiment of Chinese scientists has ended with the creation of Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer two long-tailed macaques: Sonne and Hua Hua.

Clones really grow faster?

Yes, at least some. Scientists suggest that this is due to chromosomes. All organism cells are cloning through the division cycles, and the terminal sections of chromosomes – telomeres – shortening. This is part of the natural process of aging.

Dolly chromosomes were shorter than at the same year, and she lived two times less than the average sheep: 6 years instead of 12.

However, the telomeres are shortened by Aging Of Cloned Animals: A mini-Review is not all clones. For example, cattle, dogs and mice telomeres of clones are no less, and sometimes more than that of control animals of the same age, but the sheep and wolves, on the contrary, almost always in short.

Premature aging does not concern goat: Clones live in nature laid by nature 15 years. Just lucky clones cows, dogs and mice. But cloned sheep, pigs and cats live less. What about the nearest relatives of man, monkeys, do not have such data. Since the first cloned macaque was born Cloning of Macaque Monkeys by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer recently, it remains only to guess how much they will live.

Whether to clone extinct animals?

After the film "Park of the Jurassic Period", many hope that scientists will be able to clone a dinosaur, but it will forever remain fantastic. Dinosaurs extortioned for too long ago, so that the tissues with DNA molecules simply did not remain – some fossil bones.

The cloning of mammoths and other animals of the ice age, the remains of which are periodically found in permafrost. However, at the moment and it is almost impossible for several reasons Mammoth Resurrection: 11 Hurdles to Bringing Back An Ice Age Beast:

What has changed in the world of cloning from the time of lamb
  • For cloning, you need an intact core with a whole DNA, and even in the most well-preserved remains, the genetic code is divided into many parts. Scientists have to collect "letters" of the genome, not knowing the exact sequence and focusing on the DNA of the closest relatives, so it is impossible to predict what happens in the end.
  • To clone the animal, you need a surrogate mother. The nearest relatives of the Mammoth are Asian elephants, so only the female of this animal can become a donor of the egg and a surrogate mother for Mammont. The procedure for taking an egg and its approach in the uterus will be very complex, but even if everything goes successfully, it will not be born not a pure view, and a hybrid Mammoth and an elephant.
  • Scientists fear that even in case of successful cloning, animals do not have enough genetic diversity to create a new population.

Such problems prevent the cloning of all extinct animals.

Can human fabrics and organs be cloned?

In 2013, scientists from Oregon under the leadership of Shukhrat Mitalipov (Shoukhrat Mitalipov) managed to Human Embryonic Stem Cells Derived by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer to hold a therapeutic cloning of a person. Mitalipov with colleagues took the core of the somatic cell of the child with a rare genetic disease, placed it in a nuclear egg cell and grown blastocyte with stem cells.

In 2014, the therapeutic cloning method managed by Human Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer using Adult Cells to turn the skin cells of men 35 and 75 years in stem cells. In the future, the predecessor cells can be used to grow any fabric and replace damaged areas and organs.

However, this method has problems: stem and cancer cells are amazingly similar Cloning . Some studies show that after 60 division cycles stem cells can accumulate mutations and lead to cancer.

There is evidence that stem cells from oily water and placenta do not form STEM CELLS DERIED FROM AMNIOTIC FLUID: New Potentials in Regenerative Medicine tumors. If these cells will use to create organs, there will be many problems associated with cloning: from the donation of the egg to the ethical side of the use of human embryos.

And what about the clones of whole people?

In 2002, members of the CLONEID Raeline sect stated Cloning about the birth of the first cloned person – Eva girls, as well as 12 other clones. Despite multiple requests from the Scientist Community and the media, "CLONEID" did not provide evidence of the existence of clones.

In 2004, scientists from the Seoul National University in South Korea declared the creation of a clone of a human embryo. However, the independent scientific committee did not find evidence, and in two years the study was withdrawn.

What prevents cloning people in addition to technology?

Reproductive human cloning causes a lot of cloning fears. No one knows what biological and social consequences can have cloning of people who lived earlier or live so far. It may disrupt the principles of identity value, human rights and freedom.

It is also not clear how to deal with clones, if you create them: whether they can become part of society and how it will perceive their appearance.

While all these problems find solutions, the reproductive human cloning is prohibited by Cloning: A Review on Bioethics, Legal, JurisPrudence and Regenerative Issues in Iran in 70 countries of the world, including Russia.

According to the Federal Law, federal law of March 29, 2010. N 30-ФЗ "On Amendments to Article 1 of the Federal Law" On Temporary Band on Human Cloning ", the prohibition will be valid until the law appears, establishing the procedure for cloning organisms in order to clone a person.

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