What is charisma and what she gives us
It is easier to understand what charisma is than give it a definition. In various newspaper and journal articles, the same examples of charismatic leaders are given: John Kennedy, Martin Luther King, Barack Obama. However, they rarely find a description of the charisma as such. The question of the need to prevent charismatic traits at the so-called "transformational" leader remains very controversial.
At the same time, the shelves of bookstores are scored by books on self-improvement, in which the reader promises to reveal all the secrets of the charisma.
Early ideas about Harizme
Some believe that it is impossible to get to the essence of the concept of "charisma", because it is something abstract than only rare individuals possess. But what is charisma?
The concept of charisma dates back to the epistles of the Apostle Paul, written about 50 years of our era. They can find the first written mention of the word "charisma", which occurred from the Greek word Charis, which means "Dar", "grace". Apostle Paul determined Harizma as "Divine Grace" or as "Gift of God".
In the messages of Paul, the word Charismata ("Gifty Gifty") was mentioned to the young Christian communities of the Roman Empire. He highlighted nine gifts, having both supernatural and natural nature: the gifts of prophecy, healing, possession of languages and interpretation of languages, the gift to transmit knowledge and gifts of ministry.
The Apostle Paul considered the concept of charisma as a mystical: it was believed that divine gifts can be poured on any person without the mediation of church institutes. There was no such thing as charisma leadership. It was assumed that the complementary gifts of grace are designed to serve the communities without the help of the leader.
However, to the IV century, under the active influence of the Church, the concept of "charisma" ceased to mean something received directly from the Holy Spirit. The church was more profitable to be considered in the context of the church hierarchy, at the top of which the bishops were located. They interpreted the Divine Laws described in the Bible in their own way.
The former concept of charisma has been preserved only thanks to heretics. Among them were preachers, defending the idea of obtaining divine inspiration directly without appeal to the bishops or the Holy Scriptures. A similar type of "heresy" was brutally pursued by the Church.
The concept of charisma from Max Weber
For a few centuries, the concept of charisma was almost nowhere mentioned. The interest in Him was revived only in the 20th century, when a German sociologist Max Weber turned to him in his works. In fact, the current meaning of the concept of "charisma" we owe exactly Weber. He reworked the religious ideas of the Apostle Paul to the secular way and considered Harizm in the context of sociological concepts about power and leadership.
According to Weber works, there are three types of power: rational, traditional and charismatic. Weber considered the charismatic type of power revolutionary, unstable, representing a kind of antidote of the iron cell "of the rationality of the modern" ordered "world. He believed that in the charismatic leader, exciting the audience with his skill, there is something heroic.
Weber determined Harizm as "the quality of the person recognized as extraordinary, due to which it is estimated as gifted by supernatural, superhuman or, at least specifically special forces and properties that are not available to other people".
He analyzed the manifestations of charismatic leadership in the face of military or religious leaders and mental the hope that charismatic leadership as a phenomenon would not disappear even in the conditions of functioning of strictly regulated bureaucratic systems of the modern world.
Max Weber died in 1920, not seeing his ideas were applied in politics and culture. Perhaps he was lucky, since Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler became the first charismatic political leaders. Therefore, many European thinkers came to the conclusion that the manifestations of the charismatic power entail the sinister events.
This dark side of the charismatic leadership could be observed for a long time. Such leaders of various movements and the Commands of the 60s of the 20th century, as, for example, Charles Manson with his talent "Okold" followers were also instantly attributed to the category of charismatic. By this time, Weber was already translated, therefore the term "charisma" was popular in English-speaking countries since the 50s of the XX century.
Modern interpretation of the concept of "charisma"
The first politicians who were called the charismatic leaders not for manipulative, and for positive features, began John Kennedy and his brother Robert Kennedy. After the 60s of the 20th century, the word "charisma" became active, as it began to be applied not only in relation to political leaders, but also to outstanding personalities, famous in other areas: for example, Mohammed Ali.
Currently, the concept of "charisma" is used to describe some personalities: politicians, celebrities, businessmen. Under Charisma, we understand the special quality laid by nature, which highlights people from the total mass and attracts to them other people.
Charisma is considered rare quality associated with special adaratence. For example, the American politicians with the qualities of the charismatic leader are usually attributed to Bill Clinton and Barack Obama, but besides them at the moment, no one has received such a title.
In the field of business, the charismatic leader was Steve Jobs: a far-sighted and inspiring, at the same time variable, unstable in his mood. In the celebrity environment, while most of the entertainment industry is dedicated to the Star Factories on the IDOLS show and The Voice, Charisma is considered a sign of rare and genuine talent. This is what realistic show cannot create.
Do I need a charisma in general politicians? David Barnett (David Barnett), a journalist engaged in writing the biographies of politicians, called the charismatic leadership "one of the most dangerous of all existing in the democratic society of phenomena". Charismatic leaders can inspire their followers with a grand rhetoric that, as a result, often leads to disagreements and causes great harm to party members or all residents of the country headed by such a leader.
Typically, political parties are enough to have impaired dear leaders who are close to him, whose ideas are understandable to ordinary people. Former Australian Prime Minister Paul Keating (Paul Keating) was a charismatic person who hosts wise decisions on his post. At the same time, he gave rise to a split in the Labor Party, disrupting most of the representatives of her traditional bones of his unacted.
His successor to John Howard (John Howard) was completely devoid of charisma, however, it was his "usability" turned out to be the most significant advantage: he did not intimidate people, but gave them a sense of confidence in tomorrow.
At the same time, staying in the position of the Prime Minister of the beloved people of the Italian leader Silvio Berlusconi (Silvio Berlusconi) was adversely affected by the life of a democratic society. The charismatic leader may be interesting, even attractive, but his success is often turning around by the fact that the state of the political party, which he represents, or even the entire democratic regime may be at risk.
So, the concept of "charisma" is already 2,000 years. Is there a connection between the modern understanding of the charisma as a special form of manifestation of power and religious ideas about the Harizme of the Pavlo Apostle? This connection is laid in the concept of natural adarability. Apostle Paul believed that for the acquisition of charisma does not need the help of bishops or church, it is poured on a person over how the Divine grace.
Today, charisma is still a mysterious talent, which cannot be lost. Nobody knows why only chosen people are gifted. As before, charisma remains a mystery.